What is Metabolic Syndrome?

Metabolic syndrome is a disease that is manifested by weight gain, high blood glucose, hypertension, and high blood cholesterol. Metabolic Surgery is a procedure that is utilized to treat metabolic syndrome. The metabolic syndrome causes death due to organ failures, loss of function, critical physical losses, and cardiovascular diseases secondary to being overweight, being obese, type II diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, and gastrointestinal disorder.

%40 of people who have obesity are also diabetic and %80 of people who have type II diabetes are obese.

    It is considered that if a person meets at least 3 of the below criteria, they have metabolic syndrome.
  1. Waist circumference above 102 cm in men and above 88 cm in women
  2. Serum triglyceride 150 mg/dl or higher
  3. LDL cholesterol is lower than 40 mg/dl in men and lower than 50 mg/dl in women.
  4. Hypertension (>130/>85 mmHg)
  5. High blood glucose (>110 mg/dl)

In metabolic (diabetic) surgery, it is needed to be focused on the functional constraint. The only way to achieve this result is to activate the neuropeptide hormones that suppress appetite, originating from the ileum, in the early stages of nutrition. If the fullness signals sent by the intestines are too weak or late, the person eats too much until metabolic fullness might occur. With bariatric (weight loss surgery) and Metabolic surgery (diabetic surgery); obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia (high amount of lipid in the blood) and diabetes are taken under control and the foods are directly bypassed to the last segment of the small intestine. The foods are not surgically allowed to pass through the upper part of the small intestine and besides, secretion of certain hormones that cause insulin resistance will be inhibited.
With this method, the insulin that can be found in our body but cannot be utilized due to type II diabetes is made available again and either dose or number of insulin and antidiabetic agents, as well as antihypertensive and antihyperlipidemic drugs, is reduced.

Which surgeries are done with Metabolic Surgery?

Metabolic surgery procedures use a mechanism built on the principle of benefiting from hormonal changes through transposition/interposition procedures.
In metabolic surgery, beneficial effects include regulation of hormones and blood glucose that are independent of weight loss in type 2 diabetic patients with no severe weight problem. For this reason, there are two basic metabolic surgeries. First, one of these is Ileal Transposition (IT) and the second one is Transit Bipartition (TB) surgery.